November 14, 2019
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Make the Connection Webcast: Moderated Q & A


>>THANK YOU, LISA. AND I’D LIKE TO THANK ALL OF OUR PANELISTS FOR THEIR THOUGHTFUL, OPEN REMARKS AND PRESENTATIONS. NEXT I’D LIKE TO MOVE TO AN OPEN DISCUSSION PERIOD. AND QUESTION AND ANSWERS WHERE I WILL ASK EACH OF THE PANELISTS KEY QUESTIONS AROUND POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT. THE FIRST QUESTION IS FOR DR. CATALANO WITH EMPHASIS ON THE POSITIVE, DOES THAT MEAN WE IGNORE NEGATIVE BEHAVIORS? WHAT DO YOU DO WHEN YOU HAVE TEENS WHOSE ARE GETTING IN TROUBLE AT SCHOOL, AND ARE THERE EFFECTIVE PYD APPROACHES FOR TEENS WITH PROBLEM BEHAVIORS?>>MANY OF THE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN OUR REVIEW WORKED WITH KIDS WHO WERE IN — CAME FROM HIGH RISK NEIGHBORHOODS, WERE EXPOSED TO MULTIPLE RISK FACTORS, BUT ONE OF THE INTERESTING THINGS THAT THEY DID WAS THAT THEY INCLUDED ALL YOUTH IN THEM. SO THEY HAD YOUTH WHO WERE HAVING TROUBLE, THEY INCLUDED YOUTH WHO WERE EXPOSED TO MULTIPLE RISK FACTORS, AS WELL AS KIDS THAT WERE EXPOSED TO FEWER RISK FACTORS. I THINK THAT’S AN IMPORTANT PRINCIPLE OF YOUTH DEVELOPMENT. IT REALLY IS FOR EVERYONE AND EVERY AUDIENCE. IF WE LOOK AT THE PREVENTION PARADOX THAT SHOWS THAT ACTUALLY THE LOW RISK POPULATION, BECAUSE IT’S SO MUCH HIGHER, GENERATES MORE CASES OF PROBLEMS THAN THE HIGH RISK ALONE. WE NEED TO KEEP THEM BOTH INVOLVED. THERE ARE EXAMPLES OF PROGRAMS LIKE NURSE FAMILY PARTNERSHIPS THAT WORK WITH FIRST-TIME MOMS. WHO WERE HAVING SOME DIFFICULTY. BUT REALLY DOES SOME LIFELONG IMPROVEMENT FOR THOSE MOMS AS WELL. INCLUDING, BECAUSE PROMOTING YOUTH DEVELOPMENT AMONG THE MOMS, LESS WELFARE DEPENDENCY, BETTER JOBS FOR THE MOM, LESS CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT FOR THE CHILDREN AS WELL. SO IT CAN WORK OVERALL BUT I JUST WANT TO REINFORCE THE PRINCIPLE OF MAKING SURE THAT WE DO THESE PROGRAMS INCLUDING EVERYONE, BRINGING EVERYONE TO THE TABLE. IT’S NOT JUST FOR KIDS AT THE LOW END OF RISK OR THE HIGH END. IT’S FOR ALL KIDS.>>GREAT. SOUNDS LIKE THEY CAN LEARN FROM EACH OTHER IN SOME ASPECTS AS WELL. MY NEXT QUESTION IS FOR KAREN PITTMAN. WHAT SHOULD BE THE ROLE OF SCHOOLS AND COMMUNITIES IN PROMOTING POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT? WHO SHOULD CHAMPION THIS EFFORT?>>WELL, THE SHORT ANSWER IS THAT SCHOOL AND COMMUNITIES ARE CRITICAL TO PROMOTING YOUTH DEVELOPMENT. THAT’S WHERE YOUNG PEOPLE SPEND MOST OF THEIR TIME. THE ANSWER TO THE SECOND QUESTION, WHO SHOULD CHAMPION IT? EVERYONE. SO ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE REALLY NEED TO FOCUS ON IN COMMUNITIES, IS MOVING THIS OUT OF THE REALM OF PROFESSIONALISM, AND JUST HAVING THIS MOVE INTO THE SPACE OF COMMON SENSE. IF YOUNG PEOPLE DON’T HAVE PLACES TO GO THAT ARE POSITIVE, PEOPLE TO TALK TO, AND THINGS TO DO, AND A REAL SENSE OF POSSIBILITY IN THE FUTURE, WHATEVER IT IS THAT WE WANT FOR THEM IS NOT GOING TO HAPPEN. SO JUST VERY QUICKLY, THE GALLUP COMPANY. GALLUP HAS BEEN PROMOTING A STUDENT POLL THAT THEY OFFER TO SCHOOLS FOR FREE FOR THE PAST FOUR YEARS, 20 SIMPLE QUESTIONS, ANY SCHOOL CAN USE IT. THREE INDICES COME OUT OF THIS. HOPE, ENGAGEMENT, AND WELLBEING ONLY 40% OF YOUNG PEOPLE, ACCORDING TO THAT POLL, ARE HOPEFUL, ENGAGED, AND THRIVING. YOU COULD WALK UP TO ANYBODY ON THE STREET AND SAY IF I HAVE A YOUNG PERSON, AND THEY’RE NOT HOPEFUL, NOT ENGAGED, AND THEY’RE NOT THRIVING, WILL THEY — DOESN’T MATTER WHAT YOU’RE FEELING, WILL THEY BE ABLE TO REDUCE — AVOID PREGNANCY? GRADUATE FROM HIGH SCHOOL? BE ABLE TO HOLD DOWN A JOB? THE ANSWER IS LIKELY NO. SO THIS IS REALLY SOMETHING THAT IS THE ROLE OF THE WHOLE COMMUNITY. WHAT WE NEED TO DO IS RECOGNIZE EVERY YOUNG PERSON NEEDS TO BE IN SETTINGS THAT ARE HIGH QUALITY AND THE DEFINITION OF HIGH QUALITY IS THIS DEFINITION THAT DR. CATALANO WAS TALKING ABOUT. WE NEED SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH YOUNG PEOPLE ARE ENGAGED. THEY’RE SAFE, THEY ARE SUPPORTIVE. THEY ARE STRUCTURED. SO THAT LIST THAT WE PUT UP HAS TO BE THERE. SO WE NEED HIGH QUALITY ENVIRONMENTS MEASURED NOT BY THE CONTENT OF WHAT THEY’RE OFFERING. THERE IS A SEPARATE MEASURE FOR THAT, BUT BY THE QUALITY OF WHETHER THEY’VE CREATED A SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT FOR YOUNG PEOPLE. WHEN YOU GET THAT, YOUNG PEOPLE ARE ENGAGED. WHEN YOUNG PEOPLE ARE ENGAGED, AND THOSE ENVIRONMENTS ARE FOCUSED ON NAMING AND BUILDING THOSE SKILLS THAT WE TALKED ABOUT, WHICH ARE REALLY THE CORNERSTONE OF ALLOWING YOUNG PEOPLE TO BE READY, YOU GET THE SKILL BUILDING OF ALL THE THINGS WE TALKED ABOUT. PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS, RELATIONSHIP, TIME MANAGEMENT, SELF-DISCIPLINE. ALL THOSE THINGS THAT ARE CRITICAL, THAT ARE NOT JUST CRITICAL FOR PREVENTING PROBLEMS BUT WHAT EMPLOYERS ARE LOOKING FOR. FOUR OUT OF TEN EMPLOYERS WHO ARE INTERVIEWING HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATES TELL US THAT YOUNG PEOPLE ARE NOT READY FOR WORK. NOT BECAUSE THEY DON’T HAVE A HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA, BUT BECAUSE THEY DON’T HAVE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS, DON’T HAVE TEAMWORK, TIME MANAGEMENT SKILLS, DON’T HAVE A GOOD WORK ETHIC. THEY CAN’T COMMUNICATE THOSE ARE THE THINGS THAT HAPPEN IN POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS. BUT AGAIN–I LOVE YOUR DEFINITION– A POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM, FLIPPING IT AROUND, IS A PROGRAM THAT IS PUTTING POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT PRINCIPLES INTO PRACTICE. SO NOT ABOUT WHERE IT IS. IT’S ABOUT WHAT IT’S DOING. WHEN WE HAVE THE SKILLS BUILT AND NAMED, AND YOUNG PEOPLE ARE BUILDING AND PRACTICING THEM, THOSE SKILLS TRANSFER INTO WHATEVER CHALLENGE THAT YOUNG PERSON IS TAKING ON. WHETHER IT’S A PERSONAL LIFE CHALLENGE, OR JOINING A JOB, OR GOING ON TO COLLEGE AS A FIRST GENERATION COLLEGE GOER. YOU TAKE THOSE WORDS, RUN THEM TOGETHER, AND WHAT YOU GET IS QUEST. QUALITY, ENGAGEMENT, SKILLS, AND TRANSFER INTO THE PLACES WHERE YOUNG PEOPLE ARE TRYING TO SUCCEED. THAT’S WHAT WE HAVE TO DO TO GET TO READINESS. THIS IS A JOB THAT WE SHOULD BE — EVERYONE SHOULD BE CHAMPIONING. THAT MEANS THAT WE’RE LOOKING AT REALLY EXPANDING — THERE IS A BIG CONVERSATION ABOUT EXPANDING LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES, OR EXTENDED LEARNING, OR EXPANDED DAY OR EXTENDED DAY. SO THERE IS A RECOGNITION THAT YOUNG PEOPLE NEED TO HAVE MORE TIME IN LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS, BUT WHAT WE REALLY NEED ARE MORE BETTER LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS. THE BETTER COMES FROM THE DEFINITION OF QUALITY.>>I LIKE THAT, QUEST. SOUNDS LIKE WE ALL HAVE A ROLE TO PLAY IN THIS POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT WORK. MY NEXT QUESTION IS FOR LISA LAUXMAN, PROGRAMS SUCH AS YOUR PROGRAM, 4-H, AND MANY OTHERS HAVE MANY COMPONENTS OF POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT. WHAT ARE THE CORE ELEMENTS OF A PYD ORGANIZATION?>>YOU’VE HAD SOME OF THAT ALREADY MENTIONED. BUT I LIKE TO THINK OF IT THIS WAY. IT’S POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPS, BECAUSE IT’S REALLY BUILDING THAT ON THE RELATIONSHIP PART. THE POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT– WHICH IS THE SAFETY, THE PHYSICAL SAFETY, EMOTIONAL SAFETY ANGLES. BUT THEN LOOKING AT IT AS POSITIVE EXPERIENCES. THAT’S THE LEARNING COMPONENT, WHICH HAS TO BE INTENTIONALLY FRAMED. AND THEN I’M GOING TO THROW OUT THAT ONE ABOUT POSITIVE RISK TAKING BECAUSE I THINK TO BELIEVE THAT ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT WOULD SAY WE WOULDN’T WANT THEM TO EXPLORE, TEST THE WATERS, EXPERIMENT. BECAUSE AFTER ALL, I THINK SOMEONE — AT A PANEL WHICH I HEARD ABOUT ADJUDICATED YOUTH AT OJJDP WAS DISCUSSING THIS, THAT WAS WE DON’T — YOU CAN’T GO FROM 0 TO ALL. AND I MEAN THAT’S ONE OF THE THINGS I’D LIKE FOR US TO EXPLORE. AS A RESEARCHER, AS SOMEONE WHO IS INTO PROGRAM AND PRACTICE. I THINK THAT THE PRINCIPLES, THOSE ARE THE KEY THINGS THAT I WOULD SAY: RELATIONSHIPS, ENVIRONMENT, AND EXPERIENCES WHICH IS HOW WE’VE FRAMED IT IN CORE SUPPORTS AND OPPORTUNITIES.>>THANK YOU. NEXT, I’D LIKE TO ASK DR. WINGOOD WHAT MEASURES DO YOU USE TO DETERMINE SUCCESS? AND I THINK WE’VE HEARD SOME OF THAT TODAY. BUT CAN YOU ELABORATE?>>THANK YOU VERY MUCH. THERE ARE SEVERAL KEY MEASURES, ONE, PROGRAM EFFICACY. PROGRAM SUSTAINABILITY, AS WELL AS PROGRAM ACCEPTABILITY. WHEN WE THINK OF EFFICACY, WE THINK OF DOES THE PROGRAM WORK? DOES THE PROGRAM REDUCE OUTCOMES SUCH AS SEXUAL BEHAVIOR? VIOLENCE? ALCOHOL USE? IT’S ALSO IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND WHY DOES THE PROGRAM WORK? WHAT ARE THE MEDIATORS OF THE PROGRAM? THIS MIGHT INCLUDE COMMUNICATION SKILLS, PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS, GOAL SETTING. IN TERMS OF OTHER OUTCOMES, PUBLIC HEALTH INTERESTS LOOK AT BIOLOGICAL OUTCOMES AS WELL. DOES IT REDUCE PREGNANCY? DOES IT REDUCE SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS? IN REGARDS TO PROGRAM ACCEPTABILITY, DO THE PARTICIPANTS LIKE THE PROGRAM? DO THEY ENJOY IT? YOU CAN HAVE THE BEST PROGRAM THAT REDUCES THE ALL THESE OUTCOMES. IF THEY DON’T LIKE IT, THEY WON’T BECOME ENGAGED, THEY WON’T LISTEN. YOU LOST YOUR PARTICIPANTS. THAT DOES NO GOOD. ANOTHER KEY FACTOR IS PROGRAM SUSTAINABILITY. MANY PROGRAMS JUST EVALUATE ONE OR TWO OR A FEW MONTHS OUT. WHAT YOU WANT TO SEE IS LONG TERM OUTCOMES. THIS IS REALLY GOING TO IMPROVE THEIR LIVES. THANK YOU.>>THANK YOU. I KNOW FOR OAH PROGRAMS WE’RE LOOKING AT THE SUSTAINABILITY OF PROGRAMS, A HUGE ISSUE FOR US. WHILE YOU HAVE THE MIC, I HAVE ANOTHER QUESTION FOR YOU. TO WHAT EXTENT SHOULD PYD PROGRAMS BE TAILORED FOR DIFFERENT POPULATION GROUPS, SUCH AS HISPANICS, AFRICAN AMERICANS, AND IMMIGRANTS? AND THEN HOW SHOULD PROGRAMS CONSIDER CULTURALLY APPROPRIATE COMPONENTS FOR THEIR POPULATIONS THEY SERVE?>>A GREAT QUESTION. I THINK THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS KNOWING YOUR POPULATION THAT YOU’RE WORKING WITH. IF YOU DON’T KNOW YOUR POPULATION, YOU’VE LOST THEM ALREADY. WE HAVE TO KNOW OUR POPULATION. THAT INCLUDES CULTURALLY, THE GENDER THAT WE’RE TAILORING TO, THEIR SES. ALL THESE FACTORS ARE VERY, VERY IMPORTANT. SOME OF WHAT WE DO IS WE INTRODUCE CULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN OUR PREVENTION PROGRAMS. YOU MAY NOT THINK OF THIS AS IMPROVING EFFICACY. WHAT IT’S REALLY DOING IS NOT JUST LOOKING AT EFFICACY. IT’S LOOKING AT ADOPTION AS WELL AS ACCEPTABILITY.

Robin Kshlerin

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